ASTM International - ASTM F3218-17
Standard Practice for Recording Environmental Effects for Utilization with A-UGV Test Methods
|Publication Date:||1 July 2017|
|ICS Code (IT applications in transport):||35.240.60|
|ICS Code (Road vehicles in general):||43.020|
significance And Use:
4.1.1 Various lighting conditions can potentially affect A-UGV optical sensor performance by affecting sensor and in turn, A-UGV responsiveness. Lighting sources can include... View More
4.1.1 Various lighting conditions can potentially affect A-UGV optical sensor performance by affecting sensor and in turn, A-UGV responsiveness. Lighting sources can include ambient lighting as well as light emitters associated A-UGV operation. Two setups for lighting include direct and indirect source applied to the A-UGV. Direct lighting can also include reflected light from a highly reflective surface and implies that the source is directed at the light-affected components of the A-UGV (for example, sensors). Indirect or ambient light includes lighting where the source is not directly applied to the light-affected components of the A-UGV. Lighting exposure is either continuous light applied to the A-UGV or transitional in which the vehicle passes through various lighting conditions and levels. Light intensity is divided into five levels exemplified through dark, typical indoor lighting, and full sunlight.
4.1.2 Ambient Lighting Type:
22.214.171.124 Exposed bulb,
126.96.36.199 Light from another vehicle,
4.1.3 Ambient Lighting Source:
188.8.131.52 Direct Highly-Concentrated,
184.108.40.206 Indirect and Diffused.
4.1.4 Ambient Lighting Source Location-Record light source location and elevation with respect to the vehicle (refer to Fig. 1).
FIG. 1 Lighting and Air Velocity (see 4.7.4) Direction (a) Top View and (b) Side View and (c) Light Source Elevation Side View with Respect to the A-UGV; The "front" of the A-UGV is defined by vehicle manufacturer
FIG. 1 Lighting and Air Velocity (see 4.7.4) Direction (a) Top View and (b) Side View and (c) Light Source Elevation Side View with Respect to the A-UGV; The "front" of the A-UGV is defined by vehicle manufacturer (continued)
220.127.116.11 Elevation with respect to A-UGV path.
18.104.22.168 Location with respect to the A-UGV (indicate light source on the test method drawing; for directional lighting only).
4.1.5 Lighting Levels:
22.214.171.124 Level 1: 0 to 1 LUX (for example, dark).
126.96.36.199 Level 2: 2 to 99 LUX (for example, dim).
188.8.131.52 Level 3: 100 to 1000 LUX (for example, office environment).
184.108.40.206 Level 4: 1001 to 9999 LUX (for example, bright indoors, dim outdoors).
220.127.116.11 Level 5: 10 000 LUX and above (for example, full sunlight).
4.1.6 Spectrum-If useful to the test method, record the spectrum color and approximate wavelength (for example, violet: 400 nm).
4.1.7 Light Exposure:
4.2 External Sensor Emission:
4.2.1 When emitters are outside of the A-UGV (for example, from another A-UGV, the environment) that can potentially interfere with the A-UGV sensor system. External, unnatural radiation sources can affect the A-UGV performance, for example: multiple time-of-flight cameras, fork-lift pedestrian lights, 3D structured light sensors, light detection and ranging sensors (LIDAR).
4.2.2 External Emitter Configuration:
18.104.22.168 Type of emitter(s).
22.214.171.124 Number of emitter(s).
4.2.3 External Emitter Source Location-Record emitter source location and elevation with respect to the vehicle (refer to Fig. 1).
126.96.36.199 Elevation with respect to A-UGV path.
188.8.131.52 Location with respect to the A-UGV.
4.3.1 Temperature variability and extremes can affect the A-UGV performance. The temperature exposure on the A-UGV can be continuous or transitional while the vehicle is stationary or moving. Temperature ranges span from low to high extremes expressed in five categories. Temperature variations can affect onboard electronics, create condensation, cause hydraulic fluid viscosity, reduce battery life and recharge rate.
4.3.2 Temperature Exposure:
4.3.3 Temperature Levels (in °C):
184.108.40.206 Level 1: below 0 to 0°C (for example, freezing conditions).
220.127.116.11 Level 2: 0 to 15°C (for example, perishable storage).
18.104.22.168 Level 3: 16 to 26°C (for example, office, warehouse).
22.214.171.124 Level 4: 27 to 49°C (for example, warehouse).
126.96.36.199 Level 5: above 49°C (for example, foundries, forges).
4.4.1 Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor contained in the air around the vehicle. High humidity combined with dew point temperature causes condensation that can short electronics and affect lenses and other A-UGV components. Greater than 60 % humidity causes a large increase in corrosion of metallic parts. Low humidity, on the other hand, will see a dramatic rise in static electricity and the need for adequate discharge.
4.4.2 Relative Humidity Level:
188.8.131.52 Low - less than 30 %.
184.108.40.206 Moderately Low - 31 to 55 %.
220.127.116.11 Moderately High - 56 to 75%.
18.104.22.168 High - greater than 75 % and above.
4.4.3 Dew Point Temperature-The highest temperature at which airborne water vapor will condense to form liquid dew.
4.5 Electrical Interference:
4.5.1 Some surfaces are not conductive enough to provide adequate grounding for an A-UGV. Most ground vehicles have a floating ground and all electronics are typically grounded to the vehicle chassis. As static builds up causing the voltage difference between the positive lead of the battery and the chassis to change, the performance of the electronic components of the vehicle may be negatively impacted. Strong magnetic fields can impact the onboard electrical components, in particular any data storage within the onboard computer. Many A-UGVs require wireless network connections for full functionality. Radio frequency (RF) interference can degrade these networks and A-UGV capability.
4.5.2 For Electro-magnetic compatibility issues, refer to:
22.214.171.124 EN 12895 Electromagnetic Compatibility - Emis
126.96.36.199 IEC 61000-4-1 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-1: Testing and Measurement Techniques - Overvie
188.8.131.52 IEC 61000-6 - Emission Standards for Industrial Environments
4.6 Ground Surface:
4.6.1 A-UGV mobility is affected by ground surface conditions including surface: consistency and texture/roughness, gaps or step changes to elevation, deformability, grade (ramp) or undulation (lack of flatness), friction and particulates.
4.6.2 Ground Surface Consistency:
4.6.3 Ground Surface Type (record 'Smooth' or 'Rough' and the surface type):
184.108.40.206 Smooth (for example, concrete, tile, linoleum, carpet).
220.127.116.11 Rough (for example, gapped wood, cobblestone, large gravel, vegetation, raised metal floors, catwalks).
4.6.4 Elevation Change:
18.104.22.168 Gap-Depth and length of gap.
22.214.171.124 Step-Height and length of step.
126.96.36.199 Rigid (for example, concrete, asphalt).
188.8.131.52 Semi-rigid (for example, compacted dirt or gravel, wet sand, industrial carpet).
184.108.40.206 Soft - malle
4.6.6 Grade (Ramp):
220.127.116.11 Level 1: 0 to 5 % (for example, transitional ramp in factories).
18.104.22.168 Level 2: 6 to 10 % (for example, yard ramp = 8 to 9 %).
22.214.171.124 Level 3: 11 to 15 % (for example, steep road grade).
126.96.36.199 Level 4: 16 % and above.
4.6.7 Undulation (Lack of Flatness):
188.8.131.52 Flat ground surface - 0 to 6 mm variation over 3 m.
184.108.40.206 Moderately flat ground surface - more than 6 to 12 mm variation over 3 m.
220.127.116.11 Non-flat ground surface - more than 13 to 51 mm variation over 3 m.
18.104.22.168 Outdoor - mo
4.6.8 Coefficient of Friction:
22.214.171.124 High friction (for example, brushed concrete, asphalt).
126.96.36.199 Moderate friction (for example, polished/sealed concrete, steel plates, packed dirt).
188.8.131.52 Low friction (for example, icy, wet, lubricated, dry sand).
4.6.9 Ground Surface Particulates (record category and the type):
184.108.40.206 None (for example, dry, clean).
220.127.116.11 Fine (for example, cardboard dust, concrete dust).
18.104.22.168 Coarse (for example, sand, pebbles).
4.7 Air Quality:
4.7.1 Air quality refers to the ability that an A-UGV can discern an object or light in the presence of precipitation or air particulates, or both. Air quality can affect the A-UGV performance in terms of object detection, navigation, and docking. Air quality depends upon the size and volumetric density of particulates in the air. For relative comparison, the average human eye cannot see particulates smaller than 40 μm, fog from water vapor typically includes particle sizes from 5 to 50 μm, and dust particles are typically 0.1 to 100 μm. An ISO Class 1 cleanroom has no more than 10 particles larger than 0.1 μm in a cubic meter of air. Fog (water vapor) particle density of 1 amg allows human visibility of about 125 m at ground level. (See ISO 14644-1 and Footnote 67 for further information.) The sub-conditions and parameters for air quality include:
4.7.2 Visibility Continuity:
4.7.3 Air Particle Density-Optionally, measure the air particle size and volumetric density.
22.214.171.124 Clear (for example, clean room, no visible air particulates).
126.96.36.199 Moderate (for example, visible fog, dust, light to moderate rain/snow/fog).
188.8.131.52 Dense (for example, dust storm, heavy snow/rain/fog).
4.7.4 Air Velocity/Direction-R
184.108.40.206 0 kph (0 mph) (for example, calm).
220.127.116.11 24 kph (15 mph) (for example, breezy).
18.104.22.168 40 kph (25 mph) (for example, windy).
22.214.171.124 68 kph (42 mph) (for example, gale).
126.96.36.199 116 kph (72 mph) or above (for example, hurricane).View Less
1.1 This practice describes a means to record the following environmental conditions that may affect the performance of A-UGVs: lighting, external sensor emission, temperature, ground surface, air quality, humidity, and electrical interference.
1.2 The A-UGV operating ranges for each of the conditions listed in 1.1 are described and parameterized in Section 4 and allow a basis for performance comparison in test methods. The approach is to divide the list of environmental conditions into sub-conditions that represent the various aspects of the major category (for example, sunlight within ambient lighting). Where necessary, this practice also provides guidelines (for example, lighting direction) to record environmental conditions in an existing environment.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are not precise mathematical conversion to imperial units. They are close approximate equivalents for the purpose of specifying material dimensions or quantities that are readily available to avoid excessive fabrication costs of test apparatuses while maintaining repeatability and reproducibility of the test method results. These values given in parentheses are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.