ASTM International - ASTM F1166-95a(2000)

Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment and Facilities

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Organization: ASTM International
Publication Date: 1 January 2000
Status: historical
Page Count: 155
ICS Code (General standards related to shipbuilding and marine structures): 47.020.01
scope:

1.1 This practice establishes general human engineering design criteria for marine vessels, and systems, subsystems, and equipment contained therein. It provides a useful tool for the designer to incorporate human capabilities into a design.

1.2 The purpose of this practice is to present human engineering design criteria, principles, and practices to achieve mission success through integration of the human into the vessel system, subsystem, and equipment with the goals of effectiveness, simplicity, efficiency, reliability, and safety for operation, training, and maintenance.

1.3 This practice applies to the design of vessels, systems, subsystems, and equipment. Nothing in this practice shall be construed as limiting the selection of hardware, materials, or processes to the specific items described herein. Unless otherwise stated in specific provisions, this practice is applicable to design of vessel systems, subsystems, and equipment for use by both men and women.

1.4 Copies of specifications, standards, drawings, and publications required by contractors in connection with specific procurement functions should be obtained from the procuring activity or as directed by the contracting officer.

1.5 This practice is not intended to be a criterion for limiting use of material already in the field in areas such as lift repetition or temperature exposure time.

1.6 Force Limits--If it is known that an item is to be used by an already established occupational specialty, for which physical qualification requirements for entry into that specialty are also established, any discrepancy between the force criteria of this practice and the physical qualification requirements shall be resolved in favor of the latter. In this event, the least stringent physical qualification requirement of all specialties which may operate, maintain, transport, supply, move, lift, or otherwise manipulate the item, in the manner being considered, is selected as a maximum design force limit.

1.7 Manufacturing Tolerances--When manufacturing tolerances are not perceptible to the user, this practice shall not be construed as preventing the use of components whose dimensions are within a normal manufacturing upper or lower limit tolerance of the dimensions specified herein.

1.8 This practice is divided into the following sections:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section

Title

1Scope
2Referenced Documents
3Terminology
4Significance and Use
5Control/Display Integration
6Visual Displays, General Information
7Location and Arrangement of Visual Displays
8Coding of Visual Displays
9Transilluminated Displays
10Scale Indicators
11Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Displays
12Large-Screen Displays
13Other Displays
14Audio Displays, General Information
15Audio Warnings
16Characteristics of Audible Alarms
17Signal Characteristics in Relation to Operational Conditions and Objectives
18Verbal Warning Signals
19Controls for Audio Warning and Caution Devices
20Speech Transmission Equipment
21Controls, General Information
22Arrangement and Grouping of Controls
23Coding of Controls
24Rotary Controls
25Discrete Linear Controls
26Continuous Adjustment Linear Controls
27General Requirements for Labeling
28Label Content
29Specific Requirements by Label Type
30Anthropometry
31Workspace Design Requirements
32Environment
33Maintainability
34Accessibility
35Cases
36Lubrication
37Fasteners
38Unit Design for Efficient Manual Handling
39Handwheel Torque
40Equipment Mounting
41Conductors
42Connectors
43Electrical Wires and Cables
44Test Points
45Test Equipment
46Failure Indications and Fuse Requirements
47Hydraulic Systems
48Design of Equipment For Remote Handling
49Small Systems and Equipment
50Operational and Maintenance Vehicles
51Hazards and Safety
52User-Computer Interface
53Data Display
54Text/Program Editing
55Audio Displays, Interface
56Interactive Control

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Title

1Angle of Incidence
2Example of Display/Equipment Relationship in Main Propulsion Engine Room with Two Medium Speed Diesel Engines
3Example of Control/Display/Equipment Relationship in Auxiliary Machinery Space with Two Ship Service Generators
4Example of Control/Display/Equipment Relationship in Machinery Space with Pump, Motor Controller, and Gage Board Located at Vertical Beam
5CHT Pump Room with Various Options for Locating the Two Motor Controllers and Their Corresponding Gage Boards Given the Location of the Two Pumps
6Preferred and Acceptable Alternatives for Multiple Row/Column Display and Control Arrangement
7Vertical and Horizontal Visual Field
8Lines of Sight
9Scale of Markings
10Scale Graduation, Pointer Position, and Scale Numbering Alternatives
11Fixed-Scale Azimuth Dials
12Shape and Color Coding Operating Ranges
13Zero Position and Pointer Movement for Circular Dial Displays
14Aligned Pointers for Rapid Check Readings
15Relative Position of Scale Marks, Numerals, and Pointers on Circular Dials
16Relative Position of Scale Marks, Numerals, and Pointers on Arcs and Circular Dials
17Drum-Type Counter Design
18Acceptable Alarm Types for Emergency and Primary Alarms
19Control Motion Expectancy
20Foot-Operated Switches
21Pedals
22Foot-Operated Controls
23Leg Strength at Various Knee and Thigh Angles
24Rotary Selector Controls
25Rotating Knob Separation
26Keylock Criteria
27Keylock Switch Criteria
28Thumbwheel Orientation and Movement
29Discrete Thumbwheel Control
30Knobs
31Recommended Knob Shapes
32Easily Recognizable Knob Shapes
33Ganged Knobs
34Thumbwheel Adjustment Controls
35Cranks
36Proper Mounting of Rapidly Operated Cranks
37Handwheels
38Recommended Mounting Heights for Valve Handwheels
39Reaching Limits for Bending, Squatting, or Standing on Ladders
40Pushbutton Switches
41Toggle Switches
42Toggle Switch Orientation for "ON"
43Legend Switch
44Rocker Switches
45Slide Switches
46Push-Pull Controls
47Lever
48Slide Levers
49Isotonic Joysticks
50Ball Controls
51Independent Symbols
52Label Specifications
53Standing Body Dimensions
54Seated Body Dimensions
55Depth and Breadth Dimensions
56Circumferences and Surface Dimensions
57Hand and Foot Dimensions
58Head and Face Dimensions
59Anthropometric Data for Body Positions Involved in Work Activities
6095th Percentile Gloved-Hand Dimensions (Male)
61Helmet Dimensions
62Aircrewman's Helmet (Size Extra Large)
63Range of Human Motion
64Mobile Workspace Dimensions
65Standing Workspace Dimensions-Cabinets and Electrical Equipment Racks
66Standing Workspace Dimension-CRTs and Table
67Standing Workspace Dimensions-Consoles and Work Benches
68Standing Workspace for Typical Work Positions
69Display (Top) and Control (Bottom) Locations for Standing Crew Work Stations
70Seated Workspace Dimensions
71Dimensions for Single or Multiple Personnel at a Table or Other Duty Station Not Requiring a Desk
72Seating at CRT-Type Work Stations
73Swing-Away Seat for Short-Term Operations
74Standard Console Dimensions Key
75Example of One- or Two-Tier Wrap-Around Console
76Examples of Three-Tier Consoles
77Example of a Desk Top Console
78Preferred Viewing Area
79Seated Optimum Manual Control Space
80Type of Ladder, Stair, or Ramp to be Used in Relation to Angle of Ascent
81Stair Dimensions
82Incline-Ladder Dimensions
83Vertical-Ladder Dimensions
84Well-Designed Work Platform
85Door Dimensions
86Hatches Mounted Overhead
87Hatches Mounted on Vertical Walls
88Hatch Dimensions
89Walkway and Passageway Dimensions
90Effective Temperature Scale
91Windchill Chart
92Equivalent Chill Temperature
93Ventilation Requirements
94Workspace Reflectance Values
95Permissible Distance Between a Speaker and Listener's for Specified Voice Levels and Ambient Noise Levels
96Range of Acceptable Reverberation Time
97Vibration Exposure Criteria for Longitudinal (Upper Figure) and Transverse (Lower Figure) Directions with Respect to Body Axis
98The 90 % Motion Sickness Protection Limits for Human Exposure to Very Low Frequency Vibration
99Standing, Lateral Reach (Preferred Arm)
100 Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
101 Crosslegged Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
102 Standing, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
103 Standing, Forward Reach (Preferred Arm)
104 Access Opening Dimensions
105 Minimal Two-Hand and Finger Access
106 Covers and Accesses
107 Covers and Cases
108 Examples of Push-Pull Forces
109 Minimum Handle Dimensions
110 Handwheel Torque
111 Methods of Identifying Plugs and Receptacles to Prevent Mismatching
112 Cable Arrangements
113 Suggested Cable Arrangement in Junction Box for Easy Checking
114 Preformed Cables
115 Fluid Line Connector Recommendations
116 Anatomical Limits on Axially Symmetrical Ocular Metal Part
117 Mounting Heights for Common Electrical Fixtures
118 Required Distance Between Hazard and Barrier

LIST OF TABLES

Table

Title

1Metric Equivalents, Abbreviations, and Prefixes
2Coding of Simple Indicator Lights
3Application of Various Types of Mechanical Displays
4Character Sizes for Mechanical Counters
5Group Viewing of Optical Projection Displays
6Range Ring Values
7Functional Evaluation of Audio Signals
8Intelligibility Criteria for Voice Communications Systems
9Control Selection Criteria
10Recommended Manual Controls
11Conventional Control Movement Stereotypes
12Minimum Separation Distances for Controls
13Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Types of Coding
14Recommended Control Colors (FED-STD-595)
15Knob Detentes Placement
16Keyboards, Inch-pound Units
17Keyboards, SI Units
18Limiting Dimensions for Free-Moving X-Y Controller
19Arm Strength
20Hand and Thumb-Finger Strength
21Character Size Versus Luminance
22Anthropometric Data
23Range of Human Motion
24Mobile Work Space Dimensions
25Standing Work Space Dimensions for Work Clearances
26Seated Work Space Dimensions
27Standard Console Dimensions
28Human Performance Effects at Various Effective Temperatures
29Physical and Perceptual Responses to Various Temperatures
30Temperature and Its Effect on the Comfort of the Extremities
31Human Reaction to Windchill
32Specific Task Illumination Requirements
33Recommendations for Display Lighting
34Low-Frequency and Infrasonic Noise Limits to Prevent Ear Injury
35Sound Exposure to Avoid Deafness
36Maximum Permissible Sound Pressure Level
37OSHA Permissible Daily Noise
38Effects of Noise on Human Performance
39Effects of High-Level Noise on Human Performance
40Upper Noise Limits Recommended for Military Facilities
41Comfort Limits for Noise by Octave Band
42Noxious Exhaust Products of Engine Fuels
43Design Weight Limits
44Static Muscle Strength Data
45Weight and Dimensions of Portable Test Equipment
46General Comparison Fuses and Circuit Breakers
47Recommended Clearances Around Equipment Operator's Station to Accommodate 95th Percentile Male Dressed in Arctic Clothing. Operator Seat in Rear Most Position
48Temperature Limits
49Shock Current Intensities and Their Probable Effects
50Allowable Exposure Limits to Some Toxic Gases
51System Response Times

^REFERENCE: ^REFDOCID: IEEE/ASTM SI 10^REFDOCTITLE: Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric SystemMilitary Specifications:^REFDOCID: MIL-C-25050,^REFDOCTITLE: Colors, Aeronautical Lights and Lighting Equipment, General Requirements forFederal Standard: ^REFDOCID: FED-STD-595^REFDOCTITLE: ColorMilitary Standards:^REFDOCID: MIL-STD-12,^REFDOCTITLE: Abbreviation for Use on Drawings, Specifications, Standards, and in Technical Documents^REFDOCID: MIL-STD-740, ^REFDOCTITLE: Airborne and Structureborne Noise Measurements and Acceptance Criteria of Shipboard EquipmentMilitary Handbook: ^REFDOCID: DOD-HDBK-743,^REFDOCTITLE: Anthropometry of US Military PersonnelFederal Regulations: ^REFDOCID: 29 CFR 1910, ^REFDOCTITLE: Occupational Safety and Health Standards^REFDOCID: 46 CFR 113.25-9,^REFDOCTITLE: U.S. Coast Guard Regulation ^KEYWORDS: ^INDEX TERMS: ^STATUS: Dn Cn Sn Nn Mn ^APPROVAL: 000510 ^PAGES: 156 ^COMMITTEE: F25 ^SUBCOMMITTEE: 0700 ^BOS: 01.07 ^ORGINFO: ANSI ^ACTION: REAPPROVESTD ^MISCPUB: ^PDESIG: F1166 ^PYEAR: 1995AR1995 ^CLASS: Practice

Document History

October 1, 2013
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities
1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipments, systems, and subsystems...
January 1, 2007
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities
1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipments, systems, and subsystems...
June 1, 2006
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment and Facilities
1.1 This practice establishes general human engineering design criteria for marine vessels, and systems, subsystems, and equipment contained therein. It provides a useful tool for the designer to...
ASTM F1166-95a(2000)
January 1, 2000
Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment and Facilities
1.1 This practice establishes general human engineering design criteria for marine vessels, and systems, subsystems, and equipment contained therein. It provides a useful tool for the designer to...
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