ASTM International - ASTM E177-90a(2002)

Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods

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Organization: ASTM International
Publication Date: 10 January 2002
Status: historical
Page Count: 13
ICS Code (Test conditions and procedures in general): 19.020
scope:

1.1 The purpose of this practice is to present concepts necessary to the understanding of the terms "precision" and "bias" as used in quantitative test methods. This practice also describes methods of expressing precision and bias and, in a final section, gives examples of how statements on precision and bias may be written for ASTM test methods. The term "accuracy", used in earlier editions of Practice E 177, embraces both precision and bias (see Section 20 and Note 4).

1.2 Informal descriptions of the concepts are introduced in the text as the concepts are developed, and appear in the following sections:

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Section
Terminology3
Significance and Use4
GENERAL CONCEPTS
Test Method5
Measurement Terminology6
Observation7
Test Determination8
Test Result9
SOURCES OF VARIABILITY
Experimental Realization of a Test Method10
Operator11
Apparatus12
Environment13
Sample14
Time15
STATISTICAL CONCEPTS
Accepted Reference Value16
Statistical Control17
Precision18
Bias19
Accuracy20
Variation of Precision and Bias with Material21
Variation of Precision and Bias with Sources of Variability22
COMBINATIONS OF SOURCES OF VARIABILITY
Repeatability and Laboratory Bias23
Other Within-a-Single Laboratory Precisions24
Reproducibility and Bias of the Test Method25
Range of Materials26
METHODS OF EXPRESSING PRECISION AND BIAS
Indexes of Precision27
Preferred Indexes of Precision for ASTM Test Methods28
Preferred Statements of Bias for ASTM Test Methods29
Elements of a Statement of Precision and Bias30
STATEMENTS OF PRECISION AND BIAS
Examples of Statements of Precision and Bias31
APPENDIX
Alphabetical List of Descriptions of Terms from the TextX1

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Document History

October 1, 2020
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
4.1 Part A of the “Blue Book,” Form and Style for ASTM Standards, requires that all test methods include statements of precision and bias. This practice discusses these two concepts and provides...
November 15, 2019
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
4.1 Part A of the “Blue Book,” Form and Style for ASTM Standards, requires that all test methods include statements of precision and bias. This practice discusses these two concepts and provides...
May 1, 2014
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
4.1 Part A of the “Blue Book,” Form and Style for ASTM Standards, requires that all test methods include statements of precision and bias. This practice discusses these two concepts and provides...
May 1, 2013
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
4.1 Part A of the “Blue Book,” Form and Style for ASTM Standards, requires that all test methods include statements of precision and bias. This practice discusses these two concepts and provides...
October 1, 2010
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
Part A of the “Blue Book,” Form and Style for ASTM Standards, requires that all test methods include statements of precision and bias. This practice discusses these two concepts and provides guidance...
October 1, 2008
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
Part A of the “Blue Book,” Form and Style for ASTM Standards, requires that all test methods include statements of precision and bias. This practice discusses these two concepts and provides guidance...
November 15, 2006
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
1.1 The purpose of this practice is to present concepts necessary to the understanding of the terms "precision" and "bias" as used in quantitative test methods. This practice also describes methods...
November 1, 2006
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
1.1 The purpose of this practice is to present concepts necessary to the understanding of the terms "precision" and "bias" as used in quantitative test methods. This practice also describes methods...
November 1, 2004
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
1.1 The purpose of this practice is to present concepts necessary to the understanding of the terms "precision" and "bias" as used in quantitative test methods. This practice also describes methods...
November 1, 2004
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
1.1 The purpose of this practice is to present concepts necessary to the understanding of the terms "precision" and "bias" as used in quantitative test methods. This practice also describes methods...
November 1, 2004
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
1.1 The purpose of this practice is to present concepts necessary to the understanding of the terms "precision" and "bias" as used in quantitative test methods. This practice also describes methods...
ASTM E177-90a(2002)
January 10, 2002
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
1.1 The purpose of this practice is to present concepts necessary to the understanding of the terms "precision" and "bias" as used in quantitative test methods. This practice also describes methods...
January 1, 1996
Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
1.1 The purpose of this practice is to present concepts necessary to the understanding of the terms "precision" and "bias" as used in quantitative test methods. This practice also describes methods...
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