ASTM International - ASTM D4105/D4105M-20
Standard Practice for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Modified Theis Nonequilibrium Method
|Publication Date:||15 May 2020|
|ICS Code (Hydraulic construction):||93.160|
significance And Use:
5.1.1Â Well discharges at a constant rate, Q.
5.1.2Â Well is of infinitesimal diameter and fully penetrates the aquifer, that is, the well is open to the... View More
5.1.1Â Well discharges at a constant rate, Q.
5.1.2Â Well is of infinitesimal diameter and fully penetrates the aquifer, that is, the well is open to the full thickness of the aquifer.
5.1.3Â The nonleaky aquifer is homogeneous, isotropic, and areally extensive. A nonleaky aquifer receives insignificant contribution of water from confining beds.
5.1.4Â Discharge from the well is derived exclusively from storage in the aquifer.
5.1.5Â The geometry of the assumed aquifer and well conditions are shown in Fig. 1.
5.2.3Â Application of Theis Nonequilibrium Method to Unconfined Aquifers:Â
188.8.131.52Â Although the assumptions are applicable to confined conditions, the Theis solution may be applied to unconfined aquifers if drawdown is small compared with the saturated thickness of the aquifer or if the drawdown is corrected for reduction in thickness of the aquifer and the effects of delayed gravity yield are small.
184.108.40.206Â Reduction in Aquifer Thicknessâ€"In an unconfined aquifer, dewatering occurs when the water levels decline in the vicinity of a pumping well. Corrections in drawdown need to be made when the drawdown is a significant fraction of the aquifer thickness as shown by Jacob (8). The drawdown, s, needs to be replaced by sâ€², the drawdown that would occur in an equivalent confined aquifer, where:
220.127.116.11Â Gravity Yield Effectsâ€"In unconfined aquifers, delayed gravity yield effects may invalidate measurements of drawdown during the early part of the test for application to the Theis method. Effects of delayed gravity yield are negligible in partially penetrating observation wells at a distance, r, from the control well, where:
after the time, t, as given in the following equation from Neuman (9):
|Â Â =Â Â||the specific yield.|
For fully penetrating observation wells, the effects of delayed yield are negligible at the distance, r, in Eq 11 after one tenth of the time given in the Eq 12.
Note 2:Â The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/ins
Note 3:Â The injection of water into an aquifer may be regulated or require regulatory approvals. Withdrawal of contaminated waters may require that the removed water be properly treated prior to discharge.View Less
1.1Â This practice covers an analytical procedure for determining transmissivity and storage coefficient of a nonleaky confined aquifer under conditions of radial flow to a fully penetrating well of constant flux. This practice is a shortcut procedure used to apply the Theis nonequilibrium method. The Theis method is described in Practice D4106.
1.2Â This practice, along with others, is used in conjunction with the field procedure given in Test Method D4050.
1.4Â All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
1.4.1Â The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the userâ€™s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analytical methods for engineering design.
1.5Â Unitsâ€"The values stated in either SI Units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Reporting of results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this practice.
1.6Â This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of the practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without the consideration of a projectâ€™s many unique aspects. The word â€œStandardâ€ in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.
1.7Â This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8Â This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.