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Air-gaps in 0.3 μm electrical interconnections
2000 Edition, Volume 21, December 1, 2000 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

A copper/air-gap interconnection structure using a sacrificial polymer and SiO/sub 2/ in a damascene process has been demonstrated. The air-gap occupies the entire intralevel volume with fully densified SiO/sub 2/ as the planar interlevel dielectric. The...

Air-Gap Through-Silicon Vias
2013 Edition, Volume 34, March 1, 2013 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

This letter reports for the first time the fabrication and characterization of through-silicon vias (TSVs) using air-gap insulators to enable high-performance 3-D integration. To address the challenge in fabricating extremely high-aspect-ratio air gaps, a...

Axial-air-gap motor
1947 Edition, Volume 66, July 1, 1947 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

New manufacturing techniques have made possible a practical axial-air-gap motor which offers several advantages as to size and weight. Various construction problems were encountered in the production. The motor is primarily a flange-mounted machine which is particularly...

Air-gap stacked spiral inductor
1997 Edition, Volume 7, October 1, 1997 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

In this letter, we propose an air-gap stacked spiral inductor using air-bridge technology. By stacking metal lines, inductor area can be reduced by 25%-5% compared with conventional spiral inductors. The air-gap structure yields low parasitic capacitance,...

Investigation of Hybrid Excitation Synchronous Machines With Axial Auxiliary Air-Gaps and Non-Uniform Air-Gaps
2014 Edition, Volume 50, May 1, 2014 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

The hybrid excitation synchronous machine (HESM) with magnetic shunting rotor is a new topology of brushless HESM. To optimize the excitation construction, improve the flux control capability, and decrease the magnet consumption as well, two types of HESMs with different air-gap...

A Farewell to Air Gaps, Part 1
2015 Edition, Volume 48, June 1, 2015 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

One of the most fundamentally misguided ways to protect a networked infrastructure is to introduce an air gap. The US has been mastering the art of crossing them for more than 30 years.

A Farewell to Air Gaps, Part 2
2015 Edition, Volume 48, July 1, 2015 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

Air gaps have never been an effective deterrent to a determined state-sponsored aggressor. This is just one of the lessons we learned from Stuxnet and the Farewell incident, and I will describe a few others. This is the second part of a two-part series.

Inductances of air gap generators
1988 Edition, Volume 24, January 1, 1988 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

Two numerical methods to calculate inductances of electric machines' air gap windings are presented. One of them uses the magnetic energy, and the other utilizes the flux linkages of the windings. The magnetic field computation for both methods is done with a code based on...

Air gap tuning of patch antenna resonance
2011 Edition, July 1, 2011 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

An adjustable air gap was proposed in 1984 to tune the resonant frequency of patch antennas. This method was investigated theoretically and experimentally for the case of coaxially fed patch only. The main disadvantage of applying this method to tune the frequency of coaxially...

Optimization of permanent magnet motor air-gap flux density based on the non-uniform air gap
2013 Edition, December 1, 2013 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

In order to reduce the negative effects of permanent magnet motor performance caused by excessive harmonic content in air-gap magnetic field, the optimal design of permanent magnet motor based on the Taguchi method and time-stepping FEM with built-in "V" type...

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