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A CMOS 7–Gb/s power–efficient 4–PAM transmitter
2002 Edition, January 1, 2002 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

A novel power-efficient architecture for a multi-level PAM transmitter is proposed. A data look ahead technique is used to pre-switch the current sources so that drive current is reduced when transmitting small voltage levels. Interestingly, this...

A CMOS 10-gb/s power-efficient 4-PAM transmitter
2004 Edition, Volume 39, March 1, 2004 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

A novel power-efficient architecture for a multilevel pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) transmitter is proposed. A data-look-ahead technique is used to pre-switch the current sources so that drive current is reduced when transmitting small voltage...

A new power efficient current-mode 4-PAM transmitter interface for off-chip interconnect
2010 Edition, December 1, 2010 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

In this work we propose a power-efficient 4-PAM current-mode transmitter for high-speed chip-to-chip data communication applications. The proposed transmitter meets the impedance requirements of current-mode communication. It offers high output...

A low-power dual-mode 20-Gb/s NRZ and 28-Gb/s PAM-4 voltage-mode transmitter
2017 Edition, November 1, 2017 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

A dual-mode NRZ/PAM-4 differential low-swing voltage-mode transmitter employs a quarter-rate output multiplexing architecture for low-power operation. In NRZ mode, 2-tap feedforward equalization is realized with analog replica-bias tap control that is...

A 4.9pJ/b 16-to-64Gb/s PAM-4 VSR transceiver in 28nm FDSOI CMOS
2018 Edition, February 1, 2018 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

PAM-4 modulation paired with forward error correction schemes has been introduced in recent wireline communication standards operating up to 56Gb/s per-lane. PAM-4 enables a more efficient use of the available link bandwidth but, compared to NRZ,...

An Energy Efficient 56 Gbps PAM-4 VCSEL Transmitter Enabled by a 100 Gbps Driver in 0.25 ++m InP DHBT Technology
2016 Edition, Volume 34, November 1, 2016 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

Datacenters demand higher speed vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) based optical interconnects at low-power consumption. As a potential technology enabler, this paper presents a wide-bandwidth and energy-efficient multilevel pulse-amplitude-modulation...

DSP-Enabled 100 Gb/s PAM-4 VCSEL MMF Links
2017 Edition, Volume 35, August 1, 2017 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

Short reach optical interconnects must support higher data rates to manage the increasing needs of end users and the commensurate increase in storage and computation within and between data centers. VCSEL-based MMF links provide a power efficient solution which is achieved in...

A 28 Gb/s 1.6 pJ/b PAM-4 Transmitter Using Fractionally Spaced 3-Tap FFE and $G_{m}$ -Regulated Resistive-Feedback Driver
2017 Edition, Volume 64, December 1, 2017 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

We presents an energy-efficient PAM-4 transmitter that provides a controlled output impedance, scalable output voltage swing, and fractionally spaced feed-forward equalization (FFE). By using a resistive-feedback output driver, the proposed...

IM/DD-Based 112-Gb/s/lambda PAM-4 Transmission Using 18-Gbps DML
2016 Edition, Volume 8, June 1, 2016 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

Single-channel 112-Gb/s PAM-4 transmission based on low-cost intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) optics is experimentally demonstrated over 1-km standard single-mode fiber. By employing a digital precompensation, duobinary encode/decoding with...

6.6 A 128Gb/s 1.3pJ/b PAM-4 Transmitter with Reconfigurable 3-Tap FFE in 14nm CMOS
2019 Edition, February 1, 2019 - IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

The ever-increasing demand for higher bandwidth continues to fuel the need for faster and more power-efficient IOs, with the next generation high-speed serial links expected to reach data rates higher than 112Gb/s using PAM-4 signaling [1-3]. While...

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