Submarine Signaling

Author(s): R. F. Blake
Publisher: IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
Publication Date: 1 June 1914
Volume: XXXIII
Page(s): 1,549 - 1,565
ISSN (Paper): 0096-3860
DOI: 10.1109/T-AIEE.1914.4765192



Submarine signaling has been greatly advanced by the introduction of a powerful sound transmitter and receiver called the ``Fessenden telegraph oscillator.'' By means of this, telegraph messages can be sent and received through the water by moving ships and for short distances speech can be transmitted, icebergs can be located, and soundings taken instantaneously. The apparatus consists of an oscillating electric motor-generator which has a strong electromagnet surrounding a central core on which is an alternating-current winding. Between the core and the magnet is a copper tube which acts as a closed secondary to the core winding. This copper tube is attached to a large diaphragm. When the alternating current passes through the core winding it induces a current in the copper tube, which, being free to move, vibrates back and forth, thus setting the diaphragm in vibration. This apparatus is installed in a ship so that the face of the diaphragm is in contact with the water and its vibrations set up sound waves in the water. Signals have been sent a distance of 31 miles. The oscillator can also be used as a receiver. Sound waves striking against the diaphragm cause the copper tube to vibrate, thereby generating a current in itself which is induced in the core winding. A telephone receiver in the armature circuit enables the observer to hear the sound.