Telegraph and telephone systems as affected by alternating-current lines
|Author(s):||J. B. Taylor|
|Publisher:||IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.|
|Publication Date:||1 October 1909|
|Page(s):||1,287 - 1,332|
General. In the early days of the electrical industry the telegraph practically had the field to itself. The telephone and electric light were introduced at about the same time, and later on the alternating-current systems gradually came into general use for lighting, general power, and railway purposes. At the outset, the telegraph systems made use of earth return and continue to do so at the present day. The telephone systems started out using an earth return, but soon found that satisfactory service, except in isolated cases, could be obtained only with metallic circuits. The power systems (this term includes alternating-current systems whether used for lighting, for power or for railway purposes) have until recently almost invariably used metallic circuits, which, when properly installed and under normal conditions, cause little interference to telegraph and telephone lines. Abnormal conditions, however, such as grounds, open circuits, and the like, upset the normal balance, giving strong external fields, both electrostatic and electromagnetic, which are likely to make trouble for sensitive systems in the immediate neighborhood. Recently the single-phase railway system has come into prominence. With this system the conditions are continuously very similar to those conditions which exist occasionally but of short duration on the power systems.