IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. - Fast Orthogonal Row-Column Electronic Scanning (FORCES) Experiments and Comparisons.
|Author(s):||Chris Ceroicim ; Katherine Lathammm ; Ben Greenlaym ; Jeremy A. Brownmm ; Roger Zempm|
|Publisher:||IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.|
Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging presents technical challenges of addressing large numbers of elements in 2D array transducers. Top-Orthogonal to Bottom Electrode (TOBE) 2D transducer arrays... View More
Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging presents technical challenges of addressing large numbers of elements in 2D array transducers. Top-Orthogonal to Bottom Electrode (TOBE) 2D transducer arrays can simplify addressing but typical imaging methods with such arrays enable only one-way focusing in azimuth and elevation. Here experimental results are reported for the Fast Orthogonal Row-Column Electronic Scanning (FORCES) imaging scheme implemented on a 64 ×64 element bias-sensitive electrostrictive relaxor TOBE array. The FORCES imaging scheme involves transmitting along rows to form an elevational transmit focus, while biasing columns with bias patterns selected from a Hadamard matrix. Channel data from columns is received and decoded for synthetic aperture beamforming in azimuth. This scheme offers two-way azimuthal focusing. Volumetric imaging experiments were conducted using wire phantoms as well as on rat hearts using two different TOBE imaging schemes: Scheme 1 (transmit focusing in elevation and receive focusing in azimuth) and FORCES. Wire phantom experiments at a depth of 2 cm showed an azimuthal resolution of 0.42 mm and 0.31 mm with Scheme 1 and FORCES, respectively. We also compared the elevational imaging performance of these imaging schemes with a mechanically scanned linear array. The FORCES imaging displayed an elevational resolution of 0.46 mm at a depth of 2 cm and the linear array an elevational resolution of 0.72 cm. The novel TOBE array architecture and FORCES imaging scheme thus enable high-quality 3D ultrasound imaging using only row-column addressing and bias control, and may prove an enabling technology for many future 3D imaging platforms.View Less