IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. - How Much of Driving Is Preattentive?
|Author(s):||Nicolas Pugeault ; Richard Bowden|
|Sponsor(s):||IEEE Vehicular Technology Society|
|Publisher:||IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.|
|Publication Date:||1 December 2015|
|Page(s):||5,424 - 5,438|
Driving a car in an urban setting is an extremely difficult problem, incorporating a large number of complex visual tasks; however, this problem is solved daily by most adults with little apparent... View More
Driving a car in an urban setting is an extremely difficult problem, incorporating a large number of complex visual tasks; however, this problem is solved daily by most adults with little apparent effort. This paper proposes a novel vision-based approach to autonomous driving that can predict and even anticipate a driver's behavior in real time, using preattentive vision only. Experiments on three large datasets totaling over 200 000 frames show that our preattentive model can (1) detect a wide range of driving-critical context such as crossroads, city center, and road type; however, more surprisingly, it can (2) detect the driver's actions (over 80% of braking and turning actions) and (3) estimate the driver's steering angle accurately. Additionally, our model is consistent with human data: First, the best steering prediction is obtained for a perception to action delay consistent with psychological experiments. Importantly, this prediction can be made before the driver's action. Second, the regions of the visual field used by the computational model strongly correlate with the driver's gaze locations, significantly outperforming many saliency measures and comparable to state-of-the-art approaches.View Less